Monday, 22 February 2016

Selected poem of Robert Frost

Selected poem of Robert Frost
·       His subject are universal. He deals with nature, death and also dark side of nature.
1.    Stopping by Woods on a Snowy evening
“Woods are lovely dark and deep.” In this poem he talks about beauty of nature. There is one traveler with his horse passing through dark forest. They both stopped near to one tree. At that time traveler think about god. Here we found journey of individual, one have to move ahead. He want to stay there but he gives promises to his own self so, he must go ahead. “Milles to go before I sleep”. It was darkest evening of the year.  He talks about journey of life to death, that traveler have to do so many works in his life before his death.
2.                        Design
Here in this poem poet talks about the design of nature. When we hired the word design we think about something beautiful and lovely design. But here in poem we found that there is design of darkness, darkness of nature. In the poem there is design of three white things, moth, white flower, and white spider. The moth is innocent that it is not aware about the spider hide behind the white flower. The white flower becomes reason of death of moth. Generally white is symbol of smoothing good and this white flower is healing flower, sometimes white is also dangerous.  White flower and black dark night, it shows dark design of nature. There is death of something and nature is responsible for it. Sometimes it happed that, like in Gujarat “Je poshtu te Martu a cram dise kudarati.” In this poem we can says that white spider is savior of white flower.  Through this poem port tries to show darker side of nature.
3.                        Home Burial
In this poem we found that how the death of child was happed and father used to bury his child into the garden. Garden becomes graveyard of the child. Here not only death of child but also death of parents. Here is two words ‘Home’ and ‘Burial’. Home stands for positive things, Loveliness, family and life. Whereas burial stand for negative things, graveyard, death. All opposed to home. After the burial of child mother don’t want to live in this house. As a man father is very practical were as mother is too much sensitive and emotional. Being man her husband order she and she have to obey him. The word “Dear” is use in negative sense. There is nothing like dear but her husband use word dear for her. We found death of relation of mother and father, also death of family.

4.                         Mending Wall
This poem is about two neighbors and their farm. Relation of two neighbors, they believe that “good fancies make good neighbors”. Fancies are good for the relation of other people. There is some gaps in the wall of farm, and surprising to know that both neighbor working on the one wall. But there is no conversation between them. Both are repairing the wall because some rabbits and other small creature are coming and going through this hole. We found that there is season of spring. They both have different kind of trees in their farms, one has pineapple and other have apple. We found that the trees have no any kind boundaries, because they are natural. Nature hasn’t made any kind of boundary, but all this boundaries are made by humans.

5.                        The Gift Outright
This poem is about two nations. The new nation have no any kind of culture, it is stolen by the other nations. America is growing nation it haven’t anything is their Own.  One is growing nation, but it started ruling over the world. Narration of nation is like feminine gender. Land take showed as feminine gender it is muted and also masteries.  Power goes to other people. Small nation become powerful and started ruling over the world.

6.                        Fair and Ice
Here in this poem Frost write about two different words, fire and ice. Fire stands for passion and ice stands for desire. Here poet tries to balance between fire and ice. Sometimes human emotion becomes fire and sometimes ice. In this poem poet uses paradox. Some people says that world will end with fire and some people says that world will end with ice. This both things become reason the fall of human beings.     


Tuesday, 9 February 2016

Need of Temple

 Is Temple need of Society?

In ‘Bharat’ we found that there is religion is gender biased as well as cast bias also. In past time we found that some cast wont allowed entering into temple.  We also found this kind of things happened in Mosques. Yes ‘Bharat’ is patriarchal country; rather we can say that entire world is patriarchal. So, everything is ruled by men. Apart from this we can says that temple create boundary in mind of people. They (temple) create gender distance. Here we found that money and power also plays vital role. When we look at past time there is no entry in temple for some poor people. Yes, we found still in many temples we found that women are not allowed to enter in some arias, like in ‘Shiva temple’, in Swaminarayn temples and Mosques. There are some arias are forbidden for women. Religion and temples are for connecting people, but now we can says, it become toll of depart. “If there is God there is no gender discrimination.” Because God never depart their children, and if God makes different among man and women so, there is no need of So-called God or idea of God. The society says that all men and women are equal, women get right to vote but women are not allowed to enter in temples. What is it? It shows narrowness of ‘Bhartiy Smaj’.  Here I remember one line form George Orwell’s ‘Animal farm’ there is one good line in this novel is “ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL BUT SOME ARE MORE EQUAL.” Same thing in society all are equal bat only men are allowed to enter in Mosque, Shiva temple, Swaminarayana temple, Jain temple, in short all Hindu temples. Women also not allowed doing some kind of warship of god.  
I like these two lines from article.
1)   Before temple people worshiped rocks and river and stars: Kumbh Mela is a classic example of Hindu ritual that does not involve any artificial structure. 
2)   The physical boundaries express psychological boundaries that emerged long ago, before the structures, before gods and goddesses, in the earliest phases of civilization, when humanity emerged out of the animal kingdom and sought meaning.


Friday, 5 February 2016

Bajiraow Mastani

Movie Review of ‘Bajiraow Mastani’

The movie ‘Bajiraow Mastani’ is kind of historical movie; it is based on history of Peshva khandan. It is interesting interview of director of the movie “Bajiraow Mastani”. They try to represent history in movie, so we have to remember that film is also kind of drama. That’s why they have used some dramatic liberties. It is very difficult to convert historical event in movie. Director tries to show past (historical event) in present time, rather we can say in modern way. In this modern time it becomes craze among film industry that making film or T.V. serials from historical events, also historical character. When we think about history it is kind of literature (both are not same), because it also written by man. History talks about only those who are winners. What about other who have lost their life and those who are loser?

       Now a days so many T.V. serials and movies on past, but their way of presenting is modern.  Director tries to connect past and present through this kind of movies and serials. When we talk about history of ‘Jodha Akbra’ there is big different between movie, serial and history. Also in these serials like “Maharana Pratap”, “Veer Shivaji”, in both serials we found that director use dramatic liberty and make more romantic kind of person. Both the characters are brave and fight for their motherland not for India. Same in this movie “Bajiraow Mastani” director make character more romantic; they use some “masala stuff” in movie. Which are demands of people or today’s audience. It is very difficult task, convert historical event in to movie.        

Use of Technology in Education

Use of Technology in Education

In modern education system use of technology is become necessary. Technology is kind of tool for learning and teaching process. With the use of technology teacher makes student active and creative. In class room, teacher teaches with the use of different videos and images related with topic. Because of this student understand the topic in batter way and get proper ideas regarding subject. With the use of technology and internet teacher make some groups and gives group activity to students. Because of this use of technology student developed their technical skills which are very important in 21st century. Even out of classroom student learn with the use of technology. For example if teacher have their blogs related classroom interaction and student also learn from the videos related to topics (if teacher have uploaded it). The old method of teaching is outdated in this technical period. Now a day student becomes smart so teacher have to use technology. Technology is way to reach our destination.
      There is big difference between using technology and integrating technology. Use of technology means teacher use different tool of technology in teaching process. And integrating technology means not only teacher use it but also asks to student to use technology.  Teacher teaches student how to use technology. Use of technology is not integration but use technology for creative thinking and developing our creativity of mind. As for example if teacher use technology in teaching like creating blogs and presentations. Not only creating but share it with students and social media so student can easily learn even they are not in class room. Technology is used solely by individuals working alone. Integration of technology is used to facilitate collaboration in and out of the classroom.
      Whit the use of technology we learn collaboratively and one class become global class. Through technology we one can learn anything. Integration of technology, like in department student have so many tasks like blog task, giving reply of creative mail through Gmail, also have assignment and presentation and many other things. Teacher make online quiz and student give answer online; it develops skill of online exams. It is also true that without presents of teacher some student learn more. Some student expresses their creative ideas through this kind of online discussion. This type of student cannot express their creative ideas in classroom, so they express their creative and critical ideas through blogs and online tasks, it provide platform. In classroom with the use of appropriate images teacher explain, because of this student can understand topic in batter way, it gives visual effect. That’s why student understand it in proper.                          


‘To the Lighthouse’

‘To the Lighthouse’ 

‘To the Lighthouse’ is autobiographical novel by Virginia. This novel is written in stream of consciousness technique. In stream of consciousness novel, author never comes to say or clarified anything about character. She deals with very serious topic like ‘human relationship’ with near and dear one.
          I am agreeing with, that in the novel we found both thing tribute and critique of the character of Mrs. Ramsay. Character of Mrs. Ramsay is like typical and ideal Indian woman. In India image of woman is like ‘dasi’- as servant of house, ‘manthri’ – as advisor and helper, ‘mata’ – good food maker and caretaker, ‘Rumbha’ – beautiful and loving, ‘Laxmi’ – dedication and humility, ‘Dharitri’ – compaction, this all are quality of typical and perfect Indian women. This all are quality of perfect housewife. This all quality we found in character of Mrs. Ramsay. In painting of Lily Briscoe, what type of painting is? What she (Mrs. Ramsay) was doing in painting. Mrs. Ramsay is sitting beside her son Jams and knitting something for children of whom live near to the lighthouse. And she is thinking about those children. Mrs. Ramsay is loving, caring and beautiful housewife. She used to take care of house hold things, kitchen and entire family. Mrs. Ramsay is more enduring woman. Lily doesn’t like or she is against of idea of enduring. Lily is totally different form Mrs. Ramsay. Virginia creates Lily’s character as independent woman because she wants to present herself through the character Lily.  Why she creates character of Mrs. Ramsay?
       Symbol is anything which signified something. In this novel Virginia used many symbols. The title itself is one symbol.  The lighthouse gives guide to the lost boat in dark see (at night). Here lighthouse is symbol of spiritual strength and emotion. Same Mrs. Ramsay is also compared with light house. She is full of emotion and she gives guidance to all family members. She is stand strongly like lighthouse. In other sense stoicism of Lily Briscoe is also compared with lighthouse. Because lighthouse is standing on one place only, it cannot move. There is storm and heavy rain in to see but the lighthouse is stay there and doing its work. Same in Lily’s character, many time and many people like Mrs. Ramsay and other give her advice to her a bought merge. Some says you cannot paint. But she continued her work (painting) and completes panting. At some point Virginia represent herself through the character of Lily Briscoe. In the point of stoicism lighthouse is compared with narrator (Virginia) also.
          Kunstlerroman is German term, in which we found, a novel or book deals with the youth and development of an individual, who want to be – painter, musician, poet etc. in this novel we found that the character of Lily Briscoe, she wants to be painter. The growth of Lily as individual is found in the novel. So we can justify that this novel ‘To the Lighthouse’ is Kunstlerroman novel.
          Here in Greek mythology we found feminine principle in life over the masculine. In this novel lighthouse is compared with shrine of Mrs. Ramsay and she is like goddess of this shrine. Pagan goddess is more motherly centered. Idea of reproduction is basically connected with woman. In myth Reha protect Zeus, her son and in the novel Mrs. Ramsay gives protection to her son little son Jeams.
With final stroke on the canvass, painting of Mrs. Ramsay was completed. In the end of novel we give two type of interpretation. First one is, Lily completed her painting she proves herself. And the she remember Mrs. Ramsay and uttered you are wrong, I am happy without marriage and I have completed my painting. It was done. Look at your daughter she was not happy with her marriage life. And the second one is, in description of last seen we found Lily completed Mrs. Ramsay’s painting, it means that Mrs. Ramsay was in Lily’s mind, she think about life style of Mrs. Ramsay. What Lily is doing after completing her painting? Lily Briscoe gently close door- speaks “close door open window”, this sentence was uttered by Mrs. Ramsay in novel. “Dearest Briscoe you are a fool”. Hera may be she is realized that what she is thinking was wrong. Lily does everything (after completing her painting) which is done by Mrs. Ramsay. May be she became another Mrs. Ramsay. Both type of end are possible because this novel is open ended novel.                    

‘The White Tiger'

‘The White Tiger'

‘The White Tiger’ by Arvind Adiga. Yes it half reality of India. Because it is literature and literature is not full truth. At some level we found that what happed in novel similar kind of thing are happened in India also. Here we can says that the idea of Umashankar Joshi about “The idea of Indian literature.” India has so many languages, so it is too difficult to understand entire Indian literature. India has ‘Gujarati literature’, ‘Marathi literature’ and much other literature of different regions. So we can say that there is nothing like Indian literature. “Indian literature written in different language.” No doubt that literature is mirror of society or reflection of this novel is kind of X-ray image of India. Homi K. Bhabha’s idea of ‘Narration of nation’ in literature. Culture, custom of cast, blindness of bureaucracy all things are reflected in literature. Faruk Dhondy tells about how nation and novel and how novel represent nation. This novel is half-truth about India.
Balaram’s story is story archetype of ‘rags to riches’ it are the story of son of rickshaw puller, who become entrepreneur. His journey ‘chaivala’ boy to entrepreneur. How one poor person becomes job giver? It is also true that without corruption one cannot become rich. In country like India generally all people like to this kind of story which deals the story of person who is poor then become rich. In India ‘chaivala’ become minster, there no surprise that ‘chaivala’ become entrepreneur. This kind of archetypal of this kind story of ‘rags to riches are found in cinema also. We have movie like ‘slumdog millionaire’, this move is also represent this kind of story like how one poor boy become millionaire. In all this kind of story we found that, all those people have not completed their school or education. They all learn from their experience of life. Same in Balaram’s story, he was not able to get education in school but he learns from live experience of his life. This novel shows the dark side of entrepreneur or enterprise.

It is true that language bears within itself. The text itself gives idea to deconstruct it. Here in this novel we found that Balaram says that it is the ‘autobiography of half-baked Indian’. Through this line we must think that how reliable person is Balaram? Because he himself says that he is half baked Indian man. Text itself gives hint to deconstruct the text. Language bears critique within itself. He himself says that he have-not see all this things. So how we depend upon information given by him. How one can reliable on his ‘Half Truth’ and through this point everything can be deconstructed.                                 

Selected Short story of Poe

Selected Short story of Poe

Edgar Allen Poe is very famous for his short story. He is American writer also known as poet and critic. His stories are mysterious, detective and horror story. He also deals with human psychology and criminal mind of humans. In his story we found reflection of his fragmented childhood.

1)The Fall of House of Usher 
In this story he talks about fall of house of Usher family. It is kind of gothic fiction. Description of gloomy atmosphere of night, the characterization is also gives hint about the story. The story begins with the entry of unnamed narrator arriving at the house of Usher, for repairing the crack in the middle of house. The character of Roderick Usher also looks like ghost and nobody knows about illness of his sister. We must doubt that she is ghost? She is alive or not. She also have ghostly look. We found that the house is far from city and near to forest. Latter on we come to know that the house is looks like graveyard. All family member of Usher are buried under this house after their death. The structure of house is look like pyramid. The only two member of family are alive, brother and sister. Sister is mentally ill and attacks to kill anybody also attack on unknown narrator and his wife. At the end of the story we found that how the end or fall of the house of Usher as well as the fall of family happened. House translates in grave of entire family. At last two member of family also buried in house. No body of the family is left.
2)The Tall Tale Heart
The unknown narrator lives with an old man. The young man murdered the old man because of old man’s eyes are vultures or ghostly looking. Young man hat only the eye of old man, the reason behind killing old man is his eye. The murder was planned.  Every morning young man visit Old’s room and ask him good morning and sleep well. One day he kills old man and buried his piece of body under the floor. When the investigation of murder happened, by some police man first he denied. But then he fell or herd the heart bits of old man. His guilt consciousness forces him to listen heart beats of old man. Then he conveys that he kill old man and buried him under the floor. This story shows the criminal mind of young man and his guilt consciousness. The narrator of the story is looking innocent but through his mind he was criminal. May be he also want to take revenge to killing old man, because he is like servant of the house?  
3)The Cask of Amontillado
In this story we have two characters Montresor and Fortunato. Both are good friends. Here the narrator of the story Montrasor tells the story of taking revenge and killing his friend. Fortunate in drunken state went with Montresor. They both went underground in the catacombs. In the way Montrsor offers more drink to Fortunato. Both rich one dark place, in drunken state he can’t understand what happened with him. At that time Montresor chained him to the wall. Then build wall and leave him alone. When Fortunato opens his eyes he was alone and chained with wall. We found that there are so many skulls are lying there. In the last few sentences, we found Montresor reveals that he has never been caught and Fortunato’s body still hangs from its chain where he left him so many years before. It is kind of revenge story and shows criminality or cruelty of Monteresor.
4)The Purloined Letter
This story is kind of detective story. Ere unnamed narrator, he got chance to work with detective Augustus Dupin and the perfect police man known as G. They are tried to solve one mysterious case. Many people try to find out the letter but nobody can find out it. Dupin tries to innovative idea, method to find out the letter. He thinks from the mind of thief, he thinks that if I am thief where I put letter? He thinks from the mind or perspective of thief not the mind of police. Then he started playing one game. It shows psychology and philosophy of human mind especially detective.
5)The Gold Bug

This is a story of strange man. Who become crazy after being bitten by a bug. He thinks that the bug made from the pure gold. And he asks his friend that this bug lead us to golden treasure. After long struggle they found treasure, which was buried by the ‘Captain Kidd’ they found about fourteen million dollars. Here Poe introduces method of solving a simple substitution, cipher using of cryptogram. How they solve this kind of mysterious cryptogram with the use of their brain and get treasure.                      

Thursday, 4 February 2016


"Hamlet by Shakespeare"

It was wonderful experience of screening of the movie ‘Hamlet’ written by Shakespeare.
 In the movie many things are faithful to the play which was originally written by William Shakespeare. All the dialogues which are spoken by the characters in the movie, we find the same dialogues in the original play. All the characters are faithful to the play. The clothing and setting are not faithful to the original play. Because in Elizabethan period there were no palace and clothes are found which we can see the movie.
 In the play Ophelia is marginalized character. She is not given much space in the original play. When in the movie Ophelia get chance to present her more. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are presenting intelligent in original play but in movie they are shown as foolish men. In the movie I found the aesthetic delight, when he read a book and Polonius asked him that “what are you reading?” And he gives answer that “words words… words…” The second scene in which I feel aesthetic delight is when he behave like mad person his uncle and other courtiers. When he remembered happy moments of his childhood with his court jester.  I feel catharsis when Hamlet talks rudely with his mother. The second scene is when Ophelia cry on the death of her father and she became mad. And also Hamlet’s misbehavior with Ophelia and Ophelia’s tragic death.
 I read the play I have my own imaginations and ideas of the play and after watching the movie I get proper ideas and imaginations to understand the play in the correct way. I understand the play better than reading and also helpful for my examination. I remember the scene when Hamlet and his friend Horatio at last when Horatio ready to die with Hamlet because Horatio cannot live without Hamlet. But Hamlet told him to live and tell my story to everyone. This scene shows the deep friendship of Hamlet and Horatio.
As a director I would like to give chance to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to present himself and I cannot give death to them because they are innocent.
     In the beginning of the play the statue was stand in the front of the gate. It was king Hamlet’s statue. The play begins with the death of the king Hamlet and prince Hamlet’s revenge of his father’s death. At last statue was broken which saw that now the play ends and all are dead. I think that to take revenge is bad and that is why all this tragic things was happened in the play. The broken statue represents the tragic fall of all country and family. In first scene statue shows the dignity and power of the king and in the end it become powerless and reason of tragic fall. It also symbol of the victory of Fort bras.
      While studying the play through movie I think feminist approach is more applicable because in the play women are marginalized. Hamlet love Ophelia but he was not trust on her and he misbehave with her.

            Before showing this movie I was not very clear about this approach but when I show the movie, it is all clear in my mind. I show the act of misbehavior of Hamlet with both Ophelia and his mother.

Waiting for Godot

My view on Waiting for Godot
Movie as well as Play

Samuel get inspiration of play from the painting and create two characters one is intellectual and one was like absurd. Theme of setting is evening to night, country road and one barren tree if all are symbolic.
In this play we found one barren tree in first seen and in second act we found some four and five lives are grown up. In first seen when Vladimir sees tree live without and says “No more wiping”. Nothingness is there in tree but in second seen there are some lives agreed grown up. It shows there is something in nothingness. In second seen we found live suggest that the time is moving.
 In Waiting for Godot, what they both are doing?  They are Waiting for Godot, and waiting is endless process same evening translate into night, it's endless process.
Setting of the play is near or around the debris, it shows there is nothingness. “Nothing can be done.” It is also shows reflection of human mind. In setting there is one barren tree. I show there is something in nothingness. Tree stands for hope also, in the setting all rubbish things are found, it means there is so many troubles are there, but tree is for hope, somebody is come.
 Beginning itself show or intrudes that what is in the play? We found there is nothingness’s in the play. Play begins with the dialog of Estragon, he try to remove his boots and says “nothing to be done”. They both cannot do anything, they just killing their time in waiting for Mr. Godot, who is never going to come.
 The play is deeply philosophical play. Yes it is positive play; it is not negative, not pessimistic play. In this play writer has covered all the event of our life. In present of absurd way he shows reality of human life. Our entire life is kind of waiting for death. Person do and thinking something or a person do nothing, even no thinking. This both type of person at last they meet death. Life goes on, “you can kill yourself, but you cannot kill life”.
In this play ‘what’ is symbol of thinking and mind. Boot is symbol of body and connected with food, Vladimir plays with hat, it symbolized that he was thinking, bought bible and story of two thieves. In the beginning of the play Estragon plays with boot and always asking for food and used to sleep only. Boot goes to something absurd or silly things. It is satire on Philosopher. 
 In the play we found two men Lucky and Pozzo. Pozzo was master and lucky was slave. Lucky was obedience of his master Pozzo. In second seen we found Pozzo was blind, if Lucky wish he can escape from slavery but he could not escape. He likes to be slave of his master. It is unbelievable. 
 I think that Godot was death. In our life we bourn and what we do in our entire life, we just waiting for death. In the play we found that Vladimir and estragon waiting for Godot, they don’t know anything about Godot but them just waiting for him.
 Yes in the play the subject not Godot but waiting. Waiting is endless process. In play we found both are waiting for Godot, but Godot never comes. They just waiting and killing their time, in waiting and doing silly things. 
 When we read we have our own imagination for the play. When we visualized the play we must have or force to show whatever camera wants to shows us. Both are effective, sometime we understand or got something new form visual play. How dialogues are speak in, with proper tone of dialogues. 
Vladimir and Estragon both are waiting for Godot they both doing silly things. They want to hang themselves. Many other useless conversations are going on. They wasted their time. But their dialogues are representing reality of human life. Pozzo and Lucky come and spend some time with them. Vladimir was used to talk with the boy asks some question. He tries to get information regarding Godot. Search for self. 
Yes at some time we found effect of existentialism in the play. Meaninglessness of human life, here we competed with myth of sissifies. Humans are come wait for death, and death come and they died. Universal truth is human existent. At some point we can says that that they both waiting for Godot, who never comes. There is always hope for tomorrow. 
 The idea of suicide is connected with existentialism. Vladimir and Estragon both are waiting for Godot. There is hope for tomorrow but tomorrow never comes. We found Nietzsche idea regarding ‘Ubermensch’. Both are believer of god so they think bought and waiting for Godot. Philosophical suicide.   These play written just after world war so we found some effect of war inn to the play. Here we found politics of the European nation, is represent by name of character of the play. Vladimir –Russia, Estragon- France, Pozzo – Italy and Lucky- England. We found that Beckett have some personal dislike for England that’s why may be Beckett give and create characters like Lucky.
In this play we can says that Beckett was disciple of Joyce and Joyce hated England. Here we found characters of Pozzo and Lucky, master and slave relation.

Reluctant fundamentalist

 The Reluctant Fundamentalist

The Reluctant Fundamentalist is film directed by Mira Nair. This is the book written by Mohshin Hamid. In this film we found one journalist Bobby Linkan(who is originally C.I.A. officer) he is taking interview of young Pakistani boy Changez Khan. Changez tales bought his Experian of working in America as Pakistani boy. Interview is taking for the investigation of kidnaping of American Professor. In this move we found that there is a conflict in his mind dream and real identity of America. He thinks that America is good but when he goes there and then he realized and come to know actual image of America as state. Real America is totally different from his dreamland America. Here we found identity crisis. He faces many problems as being Pakistani man. American people don’t put trust on man who has beard and mustache. Checking of Changez in airport of America is shows that that they can’t put trust on any Pakistani man. They think that they all are terrorist. In these move we also found relation of east and West Country. What eastern people think about western people? And what is the perspective of western people towards eastern people.
       In this movie director used flashback technique. Changez recollect his memories during his past in America. It is better and sweet memories, and tall to the journalist.